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Earth and Spice


Butterscotch - Riesling, California Chardonnay

Caramel - Extensively oak-aged wines, Port

Chocolate - Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, other oak-aged reds, mature reds

Honey - Sauternes, Riesling, Viognier

Molasses - Sherry, fortified wines

Soy Sauce - Sake, some sparkling wines


Bubblegum - Beaujolais Nouveau, Pinotage, some rosé, cool-fermented whites

Candle Wax (Lanolin) - Sémillon

Cold cream - Gewürztraminer

Gasoline/Petrol - Mature German and Austrian Riesling

Perfume - Many wines, especially whites

Tar - Barolo, northern Rhône wines


Flint - Chablis, Pouilly-Fumé, Sancerre

Mineral - Pouilly-Fumé, Riesling, Chablis

Stone/gravel - Graves, other rustic reds

Salt - Sherry, particularly Manzanilla

Wet stones - Chablis


Almond/Marzipan - Soave, Prosecco, some Burgundies, Valpolicella

Chestnut - Southern Italian wines

Hazelnut - New World Chardonnay, Champagne

Nut - Mature Champagne, white Burgundy, other Chardonnay, other oak-aged wines


Black Pepper - Syrah, some Grenache-based wines

Cinnamon - Rhone reds, oak-aged whites

Clove - Cabernet Sauvignon, new oak-aged wines, Gewürztraminer

Gingerbread - Mature Alsace Gewürztraminer

Licorice/Anise - Barbera

Mint - New World Cabernet Sauvignon (Napa), Shiraz (Coonawarra)

Nutmeg - Cabernet Sauvignon

Spice - Many reds including Syrah, Shiraz, Zinfandel; Gewürztraminer

Tobacco (cigar box, pipe tobacco) - many reds including Italian and Bordeaux

White Pepper - Grenache, Grüner Veltliner


Cedar/cigar box - Bordeaux, other good cabs

Vanilla - wines aged in new American oak